n t r o d u c t i o n
Andrey Sakharov cosmophysical program
1.Select right High Energy Physics, because CMBA is the result of the Big Bang which is equivalent to the 1019Gev accelerator, that is by many orders of magnitudes higher than available on the Earth and at just the right level to check variants of the New Physics (like "Theory Of Everything")We started experiments in this field in 1968 (see table 1.). The most intensive one - "Experiment Cold" (Parijskij, Korolkov,1986). For the list of "Project Team" CMBA experiments, 1968-1998, look here
2.Select right COSMOLOGY in which we are living.
3.Determine all parametersof the working Cosmology with about 1% accuracy, that is by order of magnitude better, than it was done by all XX Century Astronomy.
4.Construct a complete theory of the origin of the barionic matter and all visible and dark structure of the Universe and to predict the Future of the Universe.
After 30 years of attempts, in 1997 it was realized by the world community, that predicted features really exist and are equivalent to the GENE in Biology- new terminology, "COSMOLOGY GENE", "GOD FACE" etc. is appearing now in the Science, because this very early Universe structure fully determines the evolution and structure of all visible objects in the nearby Universe. In 1997 it was demonstrated that discovered extra noise has blackbody spectrum (Fig.1)(Parijskij, 1997).
New generation of Giant projects immediately appeared in US, Europe,
the most powerful one- is PLANCK
SURVEYOR Space Based 100 mln. USD mission in 2004.
Here we propose to use the world biggest reflector type 600m- radio telescope, which is the most efficient ground based world facility in this field, with which several CMBA experiments were performed at the 10-5 level earlier than results abroad. It is only with very big size reflectors that atmospheric problems may be fully solved efficiently and sensitivity of the ground based observations of CMBA will be equivalent to the spaced based ones (but by factor 100 cheaper).
We can begin the experiment immediately after the installation of the best present day receiver system of the same quality, as are under construction for the PLANCK mission. Even with the same receivers, we can reach better results due to much higher (by factor 500) resolution, which is also important in this experiment.
Scientific areas addressed by CMBA projects, see PLANCK argumentation,
ESA D/SCI(96) February 1996)
|Central frequency, GHz||
|Accompanying frequencies, GHz||
|Receiver temperature, K||
|Number of receivers||
|Angular resolution, arcmin||
|Pixel integration time in a single observation, msec||
|Number of pixels||
|System temperature, K||
Pixel sensitivity, 14 months of observations
|Integration time per pixel, sec||
|Temperature sensitivity, mK in 1 sec||
|T rms., microK||
|Relative sensitivity, dT/T(x10-6)||
|Flux density sensitivity, mJy||
Project parameters errors: RATAN-600 versus other best projects
|Dark matter part||36%||28%||1.7%||1%|
Polarization is a very important CMBA parameter. The scales above the horizon scale can be used in the reconstruction of the shape of the scalar field in the vacuum stage of the Universe, small scales are very sensitive to the recombination processes and to the physics of the acoustics waves at 100000<z<1000. It is now clear, that complete I,U,Q, CMBA data can only give the information, needed to correct the comparison of the theory with observations.
Two points of interest can be mentioned here.
Both factors strongly suggest the preference of the ground based high resolution observations. "Cosmological Gene" project belongs to this class of CMBA experiments.
1. Atmospheric noise is unpolarized and ground based experiments may be performed easily. 2. Last year activity demonstrated, that small scales polarization must dominate, and arc minute resolution have to be used. Even in the best space based CMBA experiments this resolution may be achieved at submm only, were strongly polarized dust screen component can limit the accuracy of observations.
|Reference||Wavelength (cm)||scales (arcmin)||dTpol / T limit|
|Penzias et al.,1965||7.35||900||0.1|
|Parijskij et al, 1968||3.95||1-10||3x10-4|
|Pyatunina 1970||3.95||1-10||1 3x10-4|
|Caderni et al, 1978||0.05-0.3||90-2400||(10-1)x10-4|
|Lubin et al, 1981||0.9||900||6x10-5|
|Parijskij et al, 1984||7.6-3.95||1- 100||2x10-5|
|Parijskij et al, 1986||7.6-3.95||1- 100||2x10-5|
|Partridge et al, 1988||6||0.3- 2.5||1.4x10-4|
|Wollack et al, 1993||1.2-0.83||72||2.5x10-6|
PROJECT, 1999- 2001
|CBI Project, 1999- 2001||1||10||3x10-7|
|POLAR Project, 2001- 2004||0.3||100||3x10-7|
|SPOrt Project, 2001- 2004||1.5- 0.5||420||1x10-6|
|MAP Project, 2001-2004||0.3- 1||6- 30||1x10-6|
|PLANCK Project, 2004||0.3- 1||6- 30||3x10-7|
All references connected with PROJECTís group experiments maybe found in (Parijskij, Korolkov, 1986 here), others - in SPOrt or POLAR projects.
We have used standard approach in evaluation of this Table of errors, see COBRAS/SAMBA ESA Project, and the same receiver sensitivity (There are changes in number of receivers, dT and dT/T in recent publications on Planck project (Bersanelli, Mandolesi, 1998) which are not reflected in our table yet). As it was stressed by many groups, final accuracy depends strongly on the resolution limit of the facilities and we have calculated RATAN-600 errors budget using predictions, made by Jungman et al, 1996. We see from the Table, that indeed, most of the physical parameters may be estimated better with RATAN-600 resolution then with 1m Space telescope with equal receiver sensitivity.
In the PROJECT we are using the following peculiar features of RATAN-600 radio telescope