I n t r o d u c t i o n

  Andrey Sakharov cosmophysical program =>...
  -  "Project Team" CMBA experiments, 1968-1998 =>...
  -  Project parameters errors: RATAN-600 versus other best projects =>...
  -  Our collection of   CMBA polarization measurements =>...
  -  In the PROJECT we are using the peculiar features of RATAN-600 =>...
  -  References =>...
  - other CMBA links =>...

Related: *Experiment "Cold"  *"Dark Ages" of the Universe *Spectral-Spatial Fluctuations (SSF) of CMBR

          It is now generally accepted, that predicted by A.Sakharov in 1965 features in the Radio Sky are the most powerful tools of the exploration of the Early Universe. Cobe 4-year Sky map has brightly demonstrated large scale CMBA. Using much higher resolution than in RELICT1 and COBE missions, it is possible to:
1.Select right High Energy Physics, because CMBA is the result of the Big Bang which is equivalent to the 1019Gev accelerator, that is by many orders of magnitudes higher than available on the Earth and at just the right level to check variants of the New Physics (like "Theory Of Everything")

2.Select right COSMOLOGY in which we are living.

3.Determine all parametersof the working Cosmology with about 1% accuracy, that is by order of magnitude better, than it was done by all XX Century Astronomy.

4.Construct a complete theory of the origin of the barionic matter and all visible and dark structure of the Universe and to predict the Future of the Universe.

We started experiments in this field in 1968 (see table 1.). The most intensive one - "Experiment Cold" (Parijskij, Korolkov,1986).  For the list of "Project Team" CMBA experiments, 1968-1998, look here

After 30 years of attempts, in 1997 it was realized by the world community, that predicted features really exist and are equivalent to the GENE in Biology- new terminology,  "COSMOLOGY GENE", "GOD FACE" etc. is appearing now in  the Science, because this very early Universe structure fully determines the evolution and structure of all visible objects in the nearby Universe. In 1997 it was demonstrated that discovered extra noise has blackbody spectrum (Fig.1)(Parijskij, 1997).

New generation of  Giant projects immediately appeared in US, Europe, the most powerful one- is PLANCK SURVEYOR Space Based 100 mln. USD mission in 2004.

Here we propose to use the world biggest reflector type 600m- radio telescope, which is the most efficient ground based world facility in this field, with which several CMBA experiments were performed at the 10-5 level earlier than results abroad. It is only with very big size reflectors that atmospheric problems may be fully solved efficiently and sensitivity of the ground based  observations of CMBA will be equivalent to the spaced based ones (but by factor 100 cheaper).

We can begin the experiment immediately after the installation of the best present day receiver system of the same quality, as are under construction for the PLANCK mission. Even with the same receivers, we can reach better results due to much higher (by factor 500) resolution, which is also important in this experiment.

Scientific areas addressed by CMBA projects, see PLANCK argumentation, ESA D/SCI(96) February 1996)
Central frequency, GHz
Accompanying frequencies, GHz
21.7; 7.7; 11.2;  4.8; 3.9; 2.3; 0.96; 0.61
Receiver temperature, K
Bandwidth, GHz
Number of receivers
Angular resolution, arcmin
0.08 x 1
Pixel integration time in a single observation, msec
100 000
Number of pixels
165 012 
199 298
System temperature, K

  Pixel sensitivity, 14 months of  observations

Integration time per pixel, sec
Temperature sensitivity, mK in 1 sec
T rms., microK
20.8 * 
Relative sensitivity, dT/T(x10-6)
7.8 * 
Flux density sensitivity, mJy

Project parameters errors: RATAN-600 versus other best projects

Total density 6%  18%  1%  <0.5%
Barion density  30%  10%  0.7%  <0.5%
Dark matter part  36%  28%  1.7%  1%
Lambda term 10%  20%    2%  1%
Neutrino role 25%   8%  3%  2%
Hubble constant 10%  20%  2%   0.5%
Spectrum slope  30%  5%   1%  <1%
Universe transparency  50%  20%   15%  5%
He/H ratio 10%  10%  7%  <5%
Tensor/Scalar ratio  160%  38%  9%  <5%

Polarization is a very important CMBA parameter. The scales above the horizon scale can be used in the reconstruction of the shape of the scalar field in the vacuum stage of the Universe, small scales are very sensitive to the recombination processes and to the physics of the acoustics waves at 100000<z<1000. It is now clear, that complete I,U,Q, CMBA data can only give the information, needed to correct the comparison of the theory with observations.

Two points of interest can be mentioned here.

  • 1. Atmospheric noise is unpolarized and ground based experiments may be performed easily.
  • 2. Last year activity demonstrated, that small scales polarization must dominate, and arc minute resolution have to be used. Even in the best space based CMBA experiments this resolution may be achieved at submm only, were strongly polarized dust screen component can limit the accuracy of observations.
  • Both factors strongly suggest the preference of the ground based high resolution observations. "Cosmological Gene" project belongs to this class of CMBA experiments.
    First sensitive (at 1mK level) polarization measurements of the small scale CMBA were made by PROJECT group in 1969, using prototype of the RATAN-600-130 m strip radio telescope at Pulkovo Observatory with 1 arcmin resolution and with best receiver (Tn=100K, 1 GHz bandwidth) and several attempts were made later with RATAN-600 with about 0.1mK sensitivity and higher resolution in a "free scale" mode of observations. Below we present (see Table) the collection of all CMBA polarization measurements.

    Our collection of   CMBA polarization measurements

    Reference  Wavelength (cm) scales (arcmin) dTpol / T limit
    Penzias et al.,1965 7.35  900  0.1 
    Parijskij et al, 1968 3.95  1-10  3x10-4
    Pyatunina 1970  3.95  1-10  1 3x10-4
    Caderni et al, 1978 0.05-0.3  90-2400  (10-1)x10-4
    Nanos 1979 3.2  900  6x10-6
    Lubin et al, 1981 0.9  900  6x10-5
    Parijskij et al, 1984 7.6-3.95  1- 100  2x10-5
    Parijskij et al, 1986  7.6-3.95  1- 100  2x10-5
    Partridge et al, 1988  0.3- 2.5  1.4x10-4
    Wollack et al, 1993 1.2-0.83  72  2.5x10-6
    PROJECT,  1999- 2001
    1-100  3x10-7
    CBI Project, 1999- 2001 10  3x10-7
    POLAR Project, 2001- 2004  0.3  100  3x10-7
    SPOrt Project, 2001- 2004  1.5- 0.5  420  1x10-6
    MAP Project,  2001-2004 0.3- 1  6- 30  1x10-6
    PLANCK Project, 2004  0.3- 1  6- 30  3x10-7

      All references connected with PROJECTís group experiments maybe found in (Parijskij, Korolkov, 1986 here), others - in SPOrt or POLAR projects.

    We have used standard approach in evaluation of this Table of errors, see COBRAS/SAMBA ESA Project, and the same receiver sensitivity (There are changes in number of receivers, dT and dT/T in recent publications on Planck project (Bersanelli, Mandolesi, 1998) which are not reflected in our table yet). As it was stressed by many groups, final accuracy depends strongly on the resolution limit of the facilities and we have calculated RATAN-600 errors budget using predictions, made by Jungman et al, 1996. We see from the Table, that indeed, most of the physical parameters may be estimated better with RATAN-600 resolution then with 1m Space telescope with equal receiver sensitivity.

     In the PROJECT we are using the following peculiar features of RATAN-600 radio telescope


  • Korolkov D.V., Parijskij Y.N.,  Sky and Telescopes, 1979, 4, p.7
  • Popov A.S., Electrician,1897,v.40,N 1021
  • Parijskij Y. et al Bull.Spec.Astroph.Obs.,1996, v.40, p.5
  • Parijskij Y.,Korol'kov D.,Sov.Csi.Rev.Aph.Space Phys.1986,v.5,p.40.
  • Sakharov A.D.,JETP (Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics),1965,v.49,p.345
  • Sakharov A.D., "Cosmoparticle Physics- Inter-discipline Problem",Vestnikof Academy of Science USSR, 1990, N4, 39 (It is the last A.D. Sakharov publication)
  • Parijskij Y.N., Korolkov D.V.,Experiment "Cold" , Sov. Sci. Rev. E Astrophys. Space Phys., Vol. 5,1986, pp. 39-179
  • Yu.Pariskij at al. "Dark Ages" of the Universe. Proceed. of International School of Astrophysics " D. CHALONGE", 1997. (Text available).
  • M.Bersanelli, N.Mandolesi. In Proceed. of  2-nd ESA Workshop on Millimetre Wave Technology, MilliLab, Espoo, Finland, 1998.
  • V.K. Dubrovich. Spectral-Spatial Fluctuations (SSF) of CMBR